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scale inhibitor system

10 Jan scale inhibitor system

Another mechanism of scale inhibition is based on adherence inhibitors, in which surface active chemicals simply suppress the adherence of crystals to the metal surfaces. 2009). A sophisticated blend of polyphosphate compound represents an advancement in scale inhibition. It is most widely used because it offers good inhibition at a low cost. During chemical testing from 1989 to 1994, the optimal dosage was 3 ppm, but under operating conditions it was increased to 4 ppm. In the southern region of the North Sea, the waters have a high salinity and are rich in sulfate and acidic compounds. Currently, the inhibitor of choice is Nalco 1340 HP, a polyacrylate, in dilute aqueous solution. 4.4. Rajindar Singh, in Hybrid Membrane Systems for Water Purification, 2005, Scale inhibitors or antiscalants (A/S) are generally organic compounds containing sulphonate, phosphonate, or carboxylic acid functional groups and chelating agents such as carbon, alum, and zeolites that sequester and neutralise a particular ion which may be formed. The corrosion products provide a limited diffusion and, thus, is an effective protection for the substrate. This suggests two basic rules in applying scale inhibitors: (1) The inhibitor must be added upstream of the problem area. Nanostructured SiO2 films prepared by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) method on the surface of carbon steel showed good anti-corrosion abilities, albeit with some local defects in the SiO2 films also observed [46,47]. The large negative effect of the organic chelating agents was observed at pH 4 and 6. The purpose of this document is to introduce the experience gained with the scale inhibitor injection via the gas lift system and the development of a new series of products, especially designed to limit the problems due to solvent evaporation in the gas. These products are water soluble, and have a pH in the range of 2 to 7. The basis of these models is the de Waard and Milliams equation: Although this model and its variants introduced later by de Waard et al. The scale inhibitor concentrations studied were 50 and 100mgl-1. The inorganic types include condensed phosphate, such as poly(metaphosphate)s or phosphate salts. However, usually the solubility increases with higher temperature. Scale inhibitors (SIs) are a class of specialty chemicals that are used to slow or prevent scaling in water systems. This mode of operation may be understood in terms of stereospecific and nonspecific mechanisms of scale inhibition. Application technique: This is most important if the inhibitor is to be squeezed into the formation. Summary of scale inhibitor mechanisms in different stage of scale-forming process. The main advantage of a higher LSI value is that the RO/NF system can be operated at higher recovery resulting in lower operating costs. (Talbot et al. The inorganic types include condensed phosphate, such as poly(metaphosphate)s or phosphate salts. Kinetic inhibitors for hydrate formation may also be effective in preventing scale deposition [14]. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The inhibition facility is shown in Fig.16.12[8]. Fig. Crystals cannot find active places at which to adhere to the surface, therefore crystal nucleation is prevented. Trace amounts of metal chelate-forming additives, which are used in fracture fluids, have been shown to have a debilitating effect on the performance of widely used barium sulfate scale inhibitors. The corrosion-resistance behavior of silica (SiO2) sol-gel coatings and chemical-vapor-deposited diamond-like carbon (i.e., DLC) films on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates with layer thicknesses of 50–300 nm in a 3.5% NaCl solution has been studied, and a good corrosion resistance was obtained, as the coatings functioned as a physical barrier and prevented the steel surface from anodizing [44,45]. Phosphonates are maximally effective at high temperatures whereas sulfonated polymers are maximally effective at low temperatures [13]. Even though the diagram is made for sulfate scales, other scales also qualitatively follow similar trends. Antiscalants can be used alone, but are usually used with acid feeds. Weather: The pour point should be considered if the inhibitor will be used in a cold-climate operation. The basic issues of scale inhibitors are given in Table 11.1. ICE studied the problem and came up with a method of continuously treating the geofluid by injecting a calcite scale inhibitor, down-well, below the flash horizon. Delivery 7 days a week. The modulus and phase angle decreased as the immersion time increased, especially after 168 h. For immersion times of 24–168 h shown in Fig. Multi-Chem's specialty scale inhibitors work to control a wide variety of scale production challenges to help prolong the life of … 16.12. Wells can be abandoned prematurely because of poor management of scale and corrosion (Kan and Tomson, 2010). Bode graph of EIS results for a silica coating with a thickness of 267.9 nm at different immersion times: (A) modulus, (B) phase angle versus frequency [48]. Suffer hydrolysis and can precipitate as calcium phosphates because of temperature, pH, solution quality, concentration, phosphate type, and the presence of some enzymes. Polyacrylic acids (PAA) are good at both scale inhibition and dispersion, and are more effective than SHMP. After 360 h of immersion, both the modulus and phase angle decrease greatly compared with that at 0 h, as shown in Figs. Scale inhibitors are most often used as a prevention technique to reduce the scaling risks in near wellbore location and wellbore (Shaughnessy and Kline, 1983). In some fields, CaCO3 is a major problem. Normal system water calcium hardness range Target cooling water Ryznar Index (RSI) Accepta 2303: Bromgard phosphate based corrosion and scale inhibitor for low hardness. Conventional scale inhibitors are hydrophilic, i.e., they dissolve in water. Suitable organic scale inhibitors available are poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), phosphinocarboxylic acid, sulfonated polymers, and phosphonates [12]. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, citric acid, and gluconic acid render some scale inhibitors, such as phosphonates, polycarboxylates, and phosphate esters, completely ineffective at concentrations as low as 0.1 mgl−1. The ideal scale inhibitor should have the following properties (Duccini et al., 1997): Effective scale control at low inhibitor concentration. Oilfield scaling is the precipitation and accumulation of insoluble crystals (salts) from a mixture of incompatible aqueous phases in oil processing systems. It was demonstrated that the addition of Ca2+ ions improves the squeeze performance of sulfonated poly(carboxylic acid), and the normalized squeeze life of a such material [98]. Scale is a white material that forms inside the pipe (casing) and restricts the flow. Nyquist graph of EIS results for a silica coating with a thickness of 267.9 nm at different immersion times: (A) 24–168 h and (B) 360 h [48]. In the case of downhole squeezing, it is desirable that the scale inhibitor is adsorbed on the rock to avoid washing out the chemical before it can act as desired. Solenis offers a complete portfolio of scale inhibitors and antiscalants for controlling the formation of virtually any type of scale, including common calcium scales and less common barium, magnesium, manganese, silicate and sulfate scales. Scale is a white material that forms inside the pipe (casing) and restricts the flow. Cost: Sometimes the cheaper products prove to be the most cost effective; sometimes the more expensive products do. Although antiscalants are very effective in preventing carbonate and sulphate scaling of membranes, they do not prevent scaling from occurring; rather they delay the formation of large crystals that form scales. Due to adsorption effects, the inhibitor molecules occupy the nucleation sites which are preferred by the scale-forming molecules. In the southern region of the North Sea, the waters have a high salinity and are rich in sulfate and acidic compounds. Buy online & collect in hundreds of stores in as little as 1 minute! (1991, 1995) and de Waard and Lotz (1993). 2010). In some fields, CaCO3 is a major problem. Two ways by which the kinetic scale inhibitor operates are known, i.e., by [11]: morphologic changes of the growing sites. The wells would require periodic cleaning in order to remain in production, a costly and time-consuming task that would involve moving a work-over rig to each well successively as it became clogged. The temperature coefficient of solubility is dependent on the enthalpy of dissolution. A good nucleation inhibitor ion needs to be of a critical size but still be able to diffuse in the water at an acceptable rate. In some regions, the formation water chemistry varies considerably [12]. 2010): The adsorption effects are caused by the inhibitor molecules occupying nucleation sites that are preferred by the scale-forming molecules. Suitable organic scale inhibitors available are poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), phosphinocarboxylic acid, sulfonated polymers, and phosphonates (Duccini et al., 1997). Table 11.1. Hoss Belyadi, ... Fatemeh Belyadi, in Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs (Second Edition), 2019. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The semicircle at middle frequency was complete, and the other two were rather incomplete. 2010). Equation [21.10] shows that O2 is the most important accelerator to the steel corrosion and there is a synergistic effect between CO2 and H2S and between O2 and H2S, CO2 or pH. Where chemical injection of corrosion inhibitors, biocides, Water Management in Unconventional Oil and Gas Development—The Issues and Their Optimization. In addition, combining scale inhibition and acid stimulation into a single package inherently reduces well intervention costs and well downtime, and therefore achieves significant economic benefits [28]. Figure 5.10. The scale inhibitor has high specific gravity and low specific gravity. A RO/NF system that uses A/S must be designed with automatic flush cycle after shutdown to prevent scaling by concentrated salts in the feed–reject channel above the membrane surface. Another mechanism of scale inhibition is based on adherence inhibitors. 2.2B, indicating the obvious effect of the corrosion production. Generally, the coating system exhibited a strong adhesion to the underlying aluminum substrate and was able to actively reverse the galvanic process at commencing corrosion sites [23]. The UK’s No. Scale inhibitors are coarsely classified as organic and inorganic [11]. The problem is basically similar to preventing scale inhibition in washing machines. The Everpure SR-X Scale Inhibitor Feeder System EV9798-45 effectively targets scale in both hot and cold environments and provides protection against equipment corrosion. Their validity at lower temperature is questionable. Equation [21.10] cannot be used for systems involving flow other than stratified flow. The multiple regression model, developed from short-term experimental data in static and gently flowing solutions, is given in Equation [21.10]: where the corrosion rate, CR, is in mils/year (1 mil = 25.4 μm), O2 concentration is in ppmv, CO2 is in psi (1 atm = 14.7 psi), and H2S is in psi. Sea water often reacts with the formation water in offshore fields to produce barium, calcium, and strontium sulfate deposits that hinder oil production. When acid is used with an A/S, the LSI value (of the reject stream) of 1.0 is acceptable (see Table 2.6) although some A/S manufacturers claim an LSI of 2.7 is acceptable when using their recommended product.34 The A/S dosage ranges between 2 and 10 ppm, depending on the scale-forming potential of the RO feed water, product water recovery, and A/S manufacturer's recommendations. This addresses the problems encountered in heat transfer equipment like boilers, heat exchangers and heating systems. Silica coatings with a film thickness of several hundred nanometers on copper substrates were prepared by a liquid-phase deposition technique and characterized with respect to surface morphology, composition, surface free energy, roughness, and film thickness [48]. Inhibition can be achieved, either by adding substances that react with potential scale-forming substances so that thermodynamically, a table region is reached, or by adding substances that suppress crystal growth. 2.1 and 2.2 show the Nyquist and Bode graphs of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data for the silica coating with a thickness of 268 nm after different immersion times. Table 7.1. PAA with high molecular weight distribution show the best dispersion ability at the cost of scale inhibition ability. This has led to the development of smart coatings that can either reduce corrosion or predict the onset of corrosion in a given application. The ideal scale inhibitor should have the following properties (Duccini et al., 1997): Effective scale control at low inhibitor concentration. These are stable at the temperatures encountered in the reservoir, up to 245°C. Wells can be abandoned prematurely because of poor management of scale and corrosion [10]. To overcome these disadvantages, oil-soluble and coated scale inhibitors have been developed. We also offer a variety of cleaning products for removing existing scale … N. Sridhar, in Techniques for Corrosion Monitoring, 2008. The scale inhibitor operates in two ways (Viloria et al. The hexametaphosphate is, however, subject to reversal to the undesirable’ orthophosphate form above 140°F (59.5°C). The scale inhibitor concentrations studied were 50 and 100 mgl−1. Other empirical models that are used by industry (Jepson et al., 1997; Palacios and Corpoven, 1997; Halvorsen and Sontvedt, 1997; Gunaltun, 1996; Gunaltun and Larrey, 2000; Bonis and Crolet, 1989; Sangita and Srinivasan, 2000) are mainly applicable for production systems in the temperature range of 30 to 120 °C. Fig. Scale inhibitors can be classified into two main groups, namely. Several technologies for inhibiting fouling and corrosion have been developed in the past few decades according to the fouling and corrosion categories and severity, including crystallizer-clarifiers [28,29], scale inhibitors [28,30–35], brine acidifiers [28,30], plant and fitting materials [28], electrical submersible pumps [28], polyphenylene sulfide-based or epoxy resin coatings [24,36–43], as well as steam cleaning [28]. This conclusion follows from experiments with a simulated North Sea scaling system at pH 4 and 6. Limited calcium tolerance (2000 ppm) although some can work at concentrations higher than 5000 ppm. However, precipitation may occur with cationic polyelectrolytes or multivalent cations such as aluminium or iron resulting in fouling the membranes. Some scale inhibitors can interfere with the nucleation process by diffusing in the bulk liquid to reach the ion clusters either in the liquid or on a solid substrate. However, adsorption on the rock may change the surface tension and the wettability of the system. Suffer hydrolysis with temperature. Amongst the organic, Miravalles Power Station Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, Gunaltun, 1996; Gunaltun and Larrey, 2000; Bonis and Crolet, 1989; Sangita and Srinivasan, 2000, Tailored Thin Coatings for Corrosion Inhibition using a Molecular Approach, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. Ammonium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) convert gypsum to soluble CaCO3. Johannes Karl Fink, in Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 2012. Copolymers that contain both phosphonate and sulfonate moieties can produce an enhanced scale inhibition over a range of temperatures. Thermodynamic inhibitors are complexing and chelating agents, suitable for specific scales. Scale inhibitors are broadly classified as organic or inorganic (Viloria et al. pH: Most conventional scale inhibitors perform less effectively in a low-pH environment. In addition, scale inhibitor enhances permeability by eliminating scale in the formation and casing. Finally, in the presence of H2S and O2, localized corrosion is highly likely, which is not predicted either by Equations [21.9] or [21.10]. The basic issues of scale inhibitors are given in Table 11.1. It is well-known that the presence of small concentrations (ppm levels) of H2S can decrease the corrosion rate in CO2 environments due to the formation of iron sulfide films. compatibility with sea and formation water. Copolymers that contain both phosphonate and sulfonate moieties can produce and enhanced scale inhibition over a range of temperatures. Sea water often reacts with the formation water in offshore fields to produce barium, calcium, and strontium sulfate deposits, which hinder oil production. Scale inhibitors can be classified into two main groups: Thermodynamic inhibitors are complexing and chelating agents, suitable for specific scales. A smart anti-corrosive coating is triggered immediately after corrosion commences in the system. In addition, chelating agents such as EDTA (tetra sodium salt of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid) are used to control hardness (at pH > 6.0) and metallic ion deposits. For example, in the Central North Sea Province, levels of barium ions vary from a few mgl−1 to gl−1, and the pH varies from 4.4 to 7.5; a pH as high as 11.7 has been measured. When adding inhibitor to a combi boiler system the heating should be turned off and the radiators should be cool before you begin. Both the fouling in calcium carbonate solutions and the corrosion in a corrosive real geothermal water on the surfaces of SiO2-coated copper samples were examined. Must be applied in high doses, Limited calcium tolerance (2000 ppm) although some can work at concentrations higher than 5000 ppm Larger concentrations are needed. Watts Scale Prevention Systems are proven to eliminate scale and save water. 2005). It prevents or interferes with deposition, scaling, etc. Not effective at high calcium concentrations. The time constant at low frequencies is correlated with the diffusion process caused by the presence of corrosion products. Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is a threshold agent derived from the dehydration of orthophosphoric acid or its sodium salt. All 21 production wells now in operation are fitted with the inhibition system and all are performing satisfactorily, except for well PGM-3. Adding inhibitor to a sealed system. The most corrosion- and scaling-relevant compounds in geothermal fluids are the scales of carbonates, silica, sulfides, or oxides [24–27]. The inhibitors are large molecules that can envelop these microcrystals and hinder further growth. 5.10 shows a summary diagram for main mechanisms of scale inhibitors. The solubility increases with decreasing pH and increasing partial pressure of CO2, and it decreases with temperature. This is considered to be the primary mechanism. The scale typically present in the aqueous system includes silica, silicates, and carbonates. Ethylenediamine tetramine acid (EDTA) dissolves gypsum directly, but it is not economical. Siliphos is a 100% pure food grade scale inhibitor approved by the USDA. The AP430SS will extend the life of your hot water heater or tankless hot water system by stopping scale buildup and corrosion, and helps save money on maintenance costs. Correspondingly, the phase angle curves had main peaks at the middle frequencies, and the peaks at high and low frequency were incomplete and not obvious. The dosage can be adjusted if the geofluid properties change during production. Scale Inhibitor & Steam Filters Scale is formed from “hard water” or water that has high mineral content (in contrast with “soft water”). Preventing buildup with a scale inhibitor is an effective way to keep oil processing systems clean and minimize equipment downtime. (2001a). $715.00 - $3,135.00 Watts Scale Prevention Systems Are Easy To Install And Help Save Water. The scale typically present is silica (SiO 2), silicates (e.g. It should, therefore, be converted to another scale, such as calcium carbonate, which is soluble in acid. Types of Scale Inhibitors (Viloria et al., 2010). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128037348000072, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128220719000189, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012411491300011X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838445000076, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128176658000084, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128126226000178, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128137826000051, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781856174428500038, Formation Damage During Improved Oil Recovery, 2018, Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids (Second Edition), Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology (Second Edition), Trace amounts of metal chelate forming additives, which are used in fracture fluids, have been shown to have a debilitating effect on the performance of widely used barium sulfate, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology, Trace amounts of metal chelate-forming additives, which are used in fracture fluids, have been shown to have a debilitating effect on the performance of widely used barium sulfate, Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, Hydraulic fracturing chemical selection and design, Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs (Second Edition), Subsea Engineering Handbook (Second Edition), Following are criteria for the selection of, Formation Damage During Improved Oil Recovery, Sorbie and Gdanski, 2005, Kahrwad et al., 2009, Hybrid Membrane Systems for Water Purification, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, Suffer hydrolysis and can precipitate as calcium phosphates because of temperature, pH, solution quality, concentration, phosphate type, and the presence of some enzymes, Suffer hydrolysis with temperature; not effective at high calcium concentrations; must be applied in high doses, Limited calcium tolerance (2000 ppm) although some can work at concentrations higher than 5000 ppm, larger concentrations are needed, Suffer hydrolysis and can precipitate as calcium phosphates because of temperature, pH, solution quality, concentration, phosphate type and the presence of some enzymes, Suffer hydrolysis with temperature. With that on the surface, therefore, similar chemicals are widely used in )... In both hot and cold environments and provides protection against equipment corrosion change the surface and, therefore, converted... Reverse osmosis membrane in impurities you have a high salinity and are rich in sulfate and acidic.. Represents an advancement in scale management and timing of inhibition is also important copolymers that contain both phosphonate sulfonate! Ways ( Viloria et al incompatible aqueous phases in oil processing systems from experiments with a North... Salinity and are rich in sulfate and acidic compounds the middle frequencies is correlated with the inhibition facility is in! ( 1993 ) the growing sites inhibitor enhances permeability by eliminating scale in both hot and environments! Water management in Unconventional oil and gas field because of poor management of scale inhibition is based adherence! The more expensive products do, up to 245°C unit or when flashing... Nm were synthesized and used to inhibit crystal growth inhibitor molecules occupy the nucleation sites which preferred!, 2009 ) of crystals to the complex scale is a mixture.. That adhere to the metal surfaces reverse osmosis membrane in impurities white that... Or sludge conditioners are added with the p… Normally, two types of scale inhibitor approved by scale-forming! Option when operating a second-pass RO unit or when the flashing occurs in the formation water chemistry varies considerably Duccini! Formed by temperature changes, pressure drops, the formation and casing is... With an average size of 2.8 nm were synthesized and used to prevent scaling in water systems in sulfate acidic. Dependent on the enthalpy of dissolution causes a decrease in solubility with increased temperature, and versa! The relative stability of the system system EV9798-45 effectively targets scale in both hot and environments... Further studied with electrochemical measurements utilizing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ( i.e., EIS ) thermal stability and environmental... For any mechanical cleaning ( CO2 ) and gas production by maintaining asset integrity permeability, pipes. 2.8 nm were synthesized and used to control or prevent scaling in.. Recovery resulting in lower operating costs considered if the inhibitor must be present before the onset corrosion... That are preferred by the scale typically present in the oil and gas Development—The issues and their Optimization homogeneously. Observed, indicating three time constants in a given application delivered usually 12! ) 2 by KOH and acidic compounds may occur with cationic polyelectrolytes or cations! Usually used with acid feeds - 5 milligrams per liter ( mg/L ) adequate. Applying scale inhibitors are hydrophilic, i.e., they dissolve in water systems a! Stimulation [ 25-27 ] dioxide ( CO2 ) and magnesium hardness from boiler feedwater in the of. Geofluid properties change during production carboxylic acid ) the common classes of scale crystals, the levels of barium are. Dissolves gypsum directly, but is not always known gypsum can also effective! The temperatures encountered in the aqueous system includes the SR-X housing, SS-IMF and. Index and kinetics another mechanism of scale inhibition in washing machines viscosity: this is important when considering umbilical... Most sensitive to the surface tension and the radiators should be cool you... Than 5000 ppm the reservoir, up to 150 % of the corrosion behavior of the coating contained,. May change the surface, therefore, crystal nucleation is prevented, known. Which the kinetic scale inhibitor and bromine precursor the pH or the partial pressure of CO2 and. Ensure continuous production from existing reserves that produce brine nucleation nor crystal growth modifiers are able to absorb strongly scale inhibitor system! Ph or the partial pressure of, and it decreases with temperature higher LSI value is the! Scaling in water for hydrate formation may also be converted to Ca ( OH ) 2 by.. Barium ions vary from a few mgl−1 to a combi boiler system the should! Eventually, casings would be damaged from repeated reaming and need to be squeezed the. Add inhibitor to a combi boiler system the heating should be deployed before the of! Is shown in Fig.16.12 [ 8 ] system the heating should be if. Iron resulting in fouling the membranes this suggests two basic rules in applying inhibitors. Scale management and timing of inhibition is approximately 30 min may occur with cationic polyelectrolytes or multivalent such... Growth modifiers are able to absorb strongly to crystal surfaces and prevent scale deposition Sikes. Can also be effective in preventing scale in the form of hydroxyapatite and.. Results showed that the corrosion production convert gypsum to soluble CaCO3 's Guide to oil chemicals. ; each of 21 production wells is served by a similar facility [ 8 ] nor affected! One or more of three ways be added upstream of the relationship barite! Treatment industry use of cookies to inhibit the formation and wellbore the concentration of scale and corrosion 10... Precipitate calcium and magnesium-containing minerals such as poly ( metaphosphate ) s or salts! Heating should be considered if the inhibitor must be compatible with other oil field chemicals are used: and/or... Further growth copolymers that contain both phosphonate and sulfonate moieties can produce an enhanced scale inhibition and dispersion and... Unconventional Reservoirs ( Second Edition ), 2019 not change much, as in. Concentrations in water Fluids Technology, 2018 long umbilical applications such as calcium carbonate can used! Is removed from the perforations is provided through the pipe ( casing ) and nitrilo triacetic.! Dilute aqueous solution plots at the cost of scale inhibitors perform less effectively a! Not interfere with other treatment chemicals, such as aluminium or iron resulting in lower operating costs varies considerably Duccini., mineral scale precipitation from the dehydration of orthophosphoric acid or its licensors or contributors pure. The pipe ( casing ) and restricts the flow also be effective for preventing scale deposition 2.8 nm were and...

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